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Abakuá Icon by Ruddy

"The Abakuá have a sacred pictographic system called anaforuana, often traced in yellow chalk...it is visibly a cousin to the firmas of the other Afro-Cuban cult, the Paleros and to similar emblems in Haitian voodoo...'

Abakuá themes abound in Cuban Music: Ritmo Abakuá by Los Muñequitos de Matanzas alludes to the greeting of the first lodge in Cuba, Efik Ebutón, Sexteto Habanero—Criolla carabali; Arsenio Rodríguez—Canto Abakuá, with the base evoking the voice of the Leopard; Joseito Fernandez—Asi son bonkó, bonkó enchemiya being the full name of the drum; Ignacio Piñiero—Los cantares de abakuá, about a police raid; Chano Pozo—Abasi (God Almighty); Machito's Tanga and Negro Ñañamboro; Tito Rodriguez—abanekue (the initiate. El Gran Combo—Irimo; La Sonera Porceña —Congo carabali; Mongo Santamaria—Brikamo.

* Compiled from an interview by Ned Sublette with Ivor Miller on Afropop.org, 2007